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X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS (XRD)

Our XRD lab uses a Siemens D500 diffractometer with a Solex solid-state scintillation detector and state of the art data acquisition and processing software. PMET maintains a current database including the International Centre for Diffraction Data pattern files and the NIST-sponsored Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. With these tools we identify and quantify the various crystalline compounds present in a material. Quantitative XRD analysis is achieved using the whole pattern decomposition and Rietveld refinement method. Used with internal standards this method can also determine the amount of the amorphous or glassy non-crystalline portion of a material. In special cases quantification can be determined using a calibration curve derived from mixtures of available standard materials.

Typical applications for XRD include analysis of coal ash, exploration drill cores, mill circuit head, tail, rougher, and concentrate samplings, power plant corrosion deposits, boiler tube scale, clay minerals, waste streams, mineral products, crystalline phases in fused silica, contaminants in tungsten carbide, swelling minerals in soils, and industrial by-products.
 

XRD Analysis of Flyash

Typical Results of XRD Analysis (Wt%)
Flyash
quartz
15.1
mullite
22.6
magnetite
3.5
hematite
1.1
glass
51.2
carbon
6.5
 
Flyash: flyash behavior as an additive to cement can be enhanced by beneficiation. Quantitative XRD analysis determines ash mineralization available for beneficiation.
 
 

XRD Analysis of Exploration Drill Core

Typical Results of XRD Analysis (Wt%)
Exploration Drill Core
quartz
33.6
k-feldspar
8.2
plagioclase
23.4
muscovite
14.4
biotite
3.4
chlorite
8.0
kaolinite
5.0
hematite
0.3
pyrite
1.6
chalcopyrite
2.1
 
Exploration drill core: optimization of metal recoveries depends on proper blending of ore types. XRD quantitative analysis is used for quality control of ore blending.
 
 

XRD Analysis of Waste Water Precipitate 

Typical Results of XRD Analysis (Wt%)
Waste Water Precipitate
hematite
2.1
quartz
4.8
magnetite
2.7
akermanite
16.7
fluorite
15.7
calcite
52.3
monticellite
5.6
 
Waste water precipitate: many industrial processes experience precipitation of dissolved solids, deposits, accretions and other problems due to process control variables. Quantitative XRD analysis of these materials can lead to process control solutions. In this case dissolved solids in a blast furnace waste water were accreting on the dewatering screen. The data provided information useful to treating the water.
 
 
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XRD Analysis of Corrosion Deposit
Typical Results of XRD Analysis (Wt%)
Corrosion Deposit
Hematite 5.8
Quartz 1.4
Goethite 61.3
Magnetite 23.8
Wuestite 1.5
Lepidocrocite 6.2
 
Corrosion deposit: power plants experience corrosion due to different factors such as heat, oxygenation, hydration, and contamination. Quantitative XRD analysis of corrosion products points to source and cause of corrosion.


CLAY ANALYSIS

PMET�s extensive experience in minerals analysis includes differential x-ray diffraction analysis of clay minerals. This technique uses oriented, heated, and glycolated clay preparations to qualify swelling and stable clay minerals. This analysis is important for chemical processes using absorptive clays, and in precious metal recovery to avoid losses. Analysis of subsoil swelling clay and pyrite is critical for construction of stable building foundations.

 Why Quantitative XRD is a valued tool

 

 

 

 

 


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